Femoral Artery: Definition, Location, Function, and Segments

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Aug 26, 2020 01:00 PM

Our body consists of various muscles, organs, and cells that support our life. Each one of them is important and has a crucial role in keeping our body to function well.

One of the most important parts of our body is the femoral artery. What is the femoral artery? What is the function of it in the body?

In this article, Tripboba will share about some things related to the femoral artery, such as the location, function, and segments.

Femoral Artery Location

Photo by Mikael Häggström, M.D. from Wikimedia Commons

The femoral artery is one of the major arteries in the body, it is located in the thigh. It is also the main arterial supply, which means that this artery supplies blood to the lower limb.

In the thigh, the femoral artery goes thrown the femoral triangle, which is a delta-shaped depression near the groin area formed by muscles in the upper thigh.

Femoral Artery Function

The femoral artery function is to deliver blood that is supplied with oxygen from the heart to the legs. Once the oxygenated blood has circulated throughout the legs, the femoral veins bring the blood that is now needing oxygen back to the heart to circulate it through the lungs.

Then, the blood will be pumped back out to the bod through the iliac artery, and eventually the femoral artery and the smaller artery branches of the femoral artery.

Femoral Artery Segments

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The femoral artery has two segments, namely the common femoral artery and the superficial artery. 

1. Common Femoral Artery

The common femoral artery is the segment of the femoral artery that is located between the inferior margin of the inguinal ligament and the branching point of the deep femoral artery.

It is also the continuation of the external iliac artery. The function of the common femoral artery is to supply oxygenated blood to the lower limb, superficial pelvis, and anterior abdominal wall.

It also emanates smaller branches to the anterior abdominal wall and superficial pelvis. The branches of the common femoral artery include the superficial epigastric artery, superficial circumflex iliac artery, superficial external pudendal artery, and deep external pudendal artery.  

2. Superficial Femoral Artery

Another segment of the femoral artery is a superficial artery, which is also called as the subsartorial artery. It is a continuation of the common femoral artery that originated at the branch of profunda femoris.

The superficial femoral artery is the main artery of the lower limb, which means that it has a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the leg.

The superficial femoral artery has six branches, namely the superficial epigastric artery, superficial circumflex artery, superficial external pudendal artery, deep external pudendal artery, profunda femoris, and descending genicular artery. 

Femoral Artery Branches

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The femoral artery also has branches. And here are several branches that the femoral artery gives off in the thigh, such as:

1. Deep Femoral Artery

The deep femoral artery, which is also called the profunda femoris artery, is the femoral artery’s largest branch and it’s located deep within the thigh, hence the name deep femoral artery.  The main function of the deep femoral artery is to deliver blood supply to the skin of the medial thigh area, proximal femur, and muscles. 

2. Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery

This artery is a small branch of the artery that leads to the are of the anterior superior iliac spine.

3. Superficial Epigastric Artery

This artery is also a small branch of the artery that crosses the inguinal ligament and leads to the area of the umbilicus.

4. Superficial External Pudental Artery

Superficial external pudental artery is another small artery that function is to supply the skin of the scrotum.

5. Deep External Pudendal Artery

The deep external pudendal artery is also a small branch which function is to supply the skin of the scrotum.

6. Descending Genicular Artery

This artery is also a small branch of the femoral artery. The descending genicular artery’s function is to help supply the knee joint with oxygenated blood.

So, those are the things related to the femoral artery that you might want to know, such as the definition, location, function, as well as its segments and branches.

We should know that the femoral artery is one of the most important parts of the body. Knowing about femoral artery anatomy and functions can help us to better understand how the body works.

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