How to Cite Images in APA, MLA, and Chicago Style Correctly: A Complete Explanation

How to Cite Images in APA, MLA, and Chicago Style Correctly: A Complete Explanation
How to Cite Images - Photo by StockSnap dari Pixabay
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Tripboba.com - Referencing images in your research paper, thesis, or dissertation can be an effective way to support your point of view. It also proves that your writing is credible. Whether you are a researcher, student, or journal reviewer, it's very useful to learn how to cite images in different citation styles. 

In this guide, Tripboba will share with you how to cite images in APA, MLA, and Chicago style accurately. Keep reading!

How to Cite Images APA

How to Cite Images APA
How to Cite Images - Photo by StockSnap dari Pixabay

The basic APA image citation includes the creator's name, years, image title, and the format of the image (e.g. painting, photograph, map, etc), and the location of where you access the image.

The below tutorial on how to cite image APA is based on the APA 7th edition. Let's look for the formal and example. 

Cite image format: Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. or Museum, Location. URL

Examples:

  • Reference list: van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/79802
  • In-text citation:  (van Gogh, 1889)

Note that when you cite an image or photo in your text, you should also present it as a figure. 

In APA citation format, there are two different ways how to cite images APA; citing images that you accessed online and you viewed in person.

Citing Images Accessed Online

It's so simple when you cite an image accessed online. You only need to include the name of the creator, the name of the site you found ad add the URL. Here's how you do that:

Format: Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. URL

Examples:

  • Reference list: Thompson, M. (2020). Canyon wren [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2icfzq4
  • In-text citation: (Thompson, 2020)

If you find an image without an author, date, or title, there are still ways to cite it. Here's how you cite that:

  • Reference list: Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps map of Utrecht city center]. Retrieved January 10, 2020, from https://goo.gl/maps/keKNQZHZTS7ticwb8
  • In-text citation: (Google, n.d.)

Citing Images Viewed in Person

When you cite an image you view in a gallery, museum, or another offline source, you can use the following ways on how to cite images in APA 7th edition:

Cite Images Format: Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Museum, Location.

Examples:

  • Reference list: Goya, F. (1819–1823). Saturn devouring his son [Painting]. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

  • In-text citation: (Goya, 1819–1823)

How to Cite Images MLA

How to Cite Images MLA
How to Cite Images - Photo by StockSnap dari Pixabay

Same as APA citation style, the format that you use to cite an image in MLA style depends on where you view the image. 

1. Cite images from the website

Here is how to cite images from the website:

Format: Creator last name, First name. “Image Title.” or Description of the image. Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.

Examples:

  • Works Cited entry: Quinn, Pete. “European Grey Wolf Portrait.” Flickr, 21 Dec. 2019, https://flic.kr/p/2k6vq7V
  • In-text citation: (Quinn)

2. Cite images from museums and galleries

To cite images from a museum or gallery, write the name of the institution and the city where the institution is located.

Format: Artist last name, First name. Artwork Title. or Description of artwork. Year, Institution Name, City.

Examples:

  • Works Cited entry: van Rijn, Rembrandt. The Night Watch. 1642, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
  • In-text citation: (Rembrandt)

3. Citing images from books

Use the below format to cite images from books.

Format: Author last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year.

Examples:

  • Works Cited entry: Aarts, Bas. Oxford Modern English Grammar, Oxford UP, 2011.
  • In-text citation: (Aarts, fig. 3.1, p. 67)

4. Citing images from journal articles

Researchers often used images from a journal article. If you find difficulties in citing images from a journal article, here is the complete guide and example.

Format: Author last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Name, vol. Volume, no. The issue, Month Year, pp. Page Range, DOI, or URL.

Examples:

  • Works Cited entry: Abrahms, Max, et al. “Explaining Civilian Attacks: Terrorist Networks, Principal-Agent Problems, and Target Selection.” Perspectives on Terrorism, vol. 12, no. 1, Feb. 2018, pp. 23–45, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26343744.
  • In-text citation: (Abrahms et al., fig. 2, p. 30)

While if the images are not by the author of the article, give detailed lists of the images followed by the usual details format for a journal article.

Format: Author last name, First name. Image Title. or Description of the image. Year. “Article Title,” by Author first name Last name, Journal Name, vol. Volume, no. The issue, Month Year, pp. Page Range, DOI, or URL.

Examples:

  • Works Cited entry: van Rijn, Rembrandt. View of Amsterdam. 1640. “Art in Social Studies: Exploring the World and Ourselves with Rembrandt,” by Iftikhar Ahmad, The Journal of Aesthetic Education, vol. 42, no. 2, Summer 2008, pp. 19–37, https://www.jstor.org/stable/25160276.

  • In-text citation: (van Rijn 26)

How to Cite Images in Chicago

How to Cite Images in Chicago
How to Cite Images - Photo by StockSnap dari Pixabay

Chicago style is usually used in the humanities. Here are the basic elements when you want to cite images using Chicago style:

Format: Creators first and last name, Title of Work, date, medium, dimensions, location, or collection (publication details in brackets for footnotes), date accessed, and URL.

Examples:

1. Artwork in a gallery or museum seen in-person​

  • Footnote/endnote: Jessie Oonark, Baker Lake, Hunting with Bow and Spear, 1975, stencil print on paper, 55.2 x 75.4 cm., Carleton University Art Gallery, Ottawa.
  • Bibliography: Oonark, Jessie. Baker Lake, Hunting with Bow and Spear. 1975. Stencil print on paper. 55.2 x 75.4 cm. Carleton University Art Gallery, Ottawa.

2. Image from a book or article

  • Footnote/Endnote: Alevei Savrasov, The Rooks Have Arrived, 1871, in Dmitri V. Sarabianov, Russian Art: From Neoclassicism to the Avant-Garde 1800-1917: Painting – Sculpture - Architecture (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers, 1990), 169, plate 31.
  • Bibliography: Sarabianov, Dmitri V.  Russian Art: From Neoclassicism to the Avant-Garde 1800-1917: Painting – Sculpture – Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers, 1990.

3. Image from a museum or gallery website

  • Footnote/Endnote: Robert C. Todd, The Ice Cone, Montmorency Falls, ca. 1850, oil on canvas, 34.3 x 45.9 cm., National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, accessed March 8, 2016, https://www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artwork.php?mkey=4246.
  • Bibliography: National Gallery of Canada. Accessed March 8, 2016. http://www.gallery.ca/en/.

4. Image from a specialized database or online image library

  • Footnote/Endnote: Charles Fraser Comfort. Medicinae Canadiensis Tabula, 1967, color print, 90 x 46 cm, The Osler Library Prints Collection, McGill University, Montreal, accessed January 9, 2017,http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/oslerprints/fullrecord.php.
  • Bibliography: The Osler Library Prints Collection, McGill University. Accessed January 9, 2017. http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/oslerprints/index.php.

5. Image from an image sharing site like Wikimedia Commons or Flickr

  • Footnote/Endnote: Bernard Gagnon, Palmyra – Monumental Arch, April 7, 2010, Wikimedia Commons accessed January 27, 2017, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Palmyra_-_Monumental_Arch.jpg.
  • Bibliography: Wikimedia Commons. Accessed January 27, 2017. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.

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